In this sparkling new biography, which draws on material not previously published, Colin Duriez brings C. Ostling , C. The Life of C.S. Lewis This summary is indebted to many biographies of Lewis, but especially to George Sayer‟ s Jack (2nd edition, Crossway, ). C. S. Lewis Wiki As PDF . C. S. Lewis was an internationally recognized literary figures, C. S. Lewis Biography. Author -. Retrieved 7 March Archived from the original on 5 February
Clive Staples Lewis 29 November — 22 November was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalistliterary critic, essayist, lay theologianbroadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
He held academic positions at both Oxford University Magdalen College— and Cambridge University Magdalene College— He is best known for his works of fiction, especially The Screwtape LettersThe Chronicles of Narniaand The Space Trilogyand for his non-fiction Christian apologetics, such as Mere ChristianityMiraclesand The Problem of Pain. Lewis and fellow novelist J. Tolkien were close friends. They both served on the English faculty at Oxford University, and were active in the informal Oxford literary group known as the Inklings.
According to Lewis's memoir Surprised by Joyhe was baptised in the Church of Irelandbut fell away from his faith during adolescence. Lewis returned to Anglicanism at the age of 32, owing to the influence of Tolkien and other friends, and he became an "ordinary layman of the Church of England".
Inhe married American lewis biography pdf Joy Davidman ; she died of cancer four years later at the age of Lewis died on 22 November from renal failureone week before his 65th birthday. Inon the 50th anniversary of his death, Lewis was honoured with a memorial in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.
Lewis's works have been translated into more than 30 languages and have sold millions of copies. The books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia have sold the lewis biography pdf and have been popularised on stage, TV, radio, and cinema.
His works entered the public domain in in countries where copyright expires 50 years after the death of the creator, such as Canada. Clive Staples Lewis was born in BelfastIreland, on 29 November He had an elder brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis. When he was four, his dog Jacksie was killed by a car, and he announced that his name was now Jacksie. At first, he would answer to no other name, but later accepted Jack, the name by which he was known to friends and family for the lewis biography pdf of his life.
As a boy, Lewis was fascinated with anthropomorphic animals; he fell in love with Beatrix Potter 's stories and often wrote and illustrated his own animal stories. He and his brother Warnie created the world of Boxeninhabited and run by animals. Lewis loved to read; his father's house was filled with books, and he felt that finding a book to read was as easy as walking into a field and "finding a new blade of grass".
The New House is almost a major character in my story. I am the product of long corridors, empty sunlit lewises biography pdf, upstair indoor silences, attics explored in solitude, distant noises of gurgling cisterns and pipes, and the noise of wind under the tiles.
Also, of endless books. Lewis was schooled by private tutors before being sent to the Wynyard School in WatfordHertfordshire, inlewis biography pdf after his mother's death from cancer. Lewis's brother had enrolled there three years previously. The school was closed not long afterwards due to a lack of pupils; the headmaster Robert "Oldie" Capron was soon after committed to a psychiatric hospital. Lewis then attended Campbell College in the east of Belfast about a mile from his home, but left after a few months due to respiratory problems.
He was then sent to the health-resort town of MalvernWorcestershire, where he attended the preparatory school Cherbourg House, which Lewis calls "Chartres" in his autobiography.
It was during this time that Lewis abandoned his childhood Christian faith and became an atheist, becoming interested in mythology and the occult. He found the school socially competitive. Kirkpatrickhis father's old tutor and former headmaster of Lurgan College. As a teenager, Lewis was wonder-struck by the songs and legends of what he called Northernnessthe ancient literature of Scandinavia preserved in the Icelandic sagas.
These legends intensified an inner longing he later called "joy". He also grew to love nature; its beauty reminded him of the stories of the North, and the stories of the North reminded him of the beauties of nature. His teenage writings moved away from the tales of Boxen, and he began using different art forms, such as epic poetry and opera, to try to capture his new-found interest in Norse mythology and the natural world.
Studying with Kirkpatrick "The Great Knock", as Lewis afterwards called him instilled in him a lewis biography pdf of Greek literature and mythology and sharpened his debate and lewis biography pdf skills. InLewis was awarded a scholarship at University College, Oxford. Lewis experienced a certain cultural shock on first arriving in England: But what was worst was the English lewis biography pdf I have made up the quarrel since; but at that moment I conceived a hatred for England which took many years to heal.
From boyhood, Lewis had immersed himself in Norse and Greek mythology, and later in Irish mythology and literature. He also expressed an interest in the Irish language,   though there is not lewis biography pdf evidence that he laboured to learn it. He developed a lewis biography pdf fondness for W. Yeatsin part because of Yeats's use of Ireland's Celtic heritage in poetry. In a letter to a friend, Lewis wrote, "I have here discovered an author exactly after my own heart, whom I am sure you would delight in, W.
He lewises biography pdf plays and poems of rare spirit and beauty about our old Irish mythology. InLewis met Yeats twice, since Yeats had moved to Oxford. Lewis occasionally expressed a somewhat tongue-in-cheek chauvinism toward the English.
Describing an encounter with a fellow Irishman, he wrote: After all, there is no doubt, amithat the Irish are the only people: In he spent his honeymoon there at the Old Inn, Crawfordsburn which he called "my Irish life". Various critics have suggested that it was Lewis's dismay over sectarian conflict in his native Belfast which led him to eventually adopt such an ecumenical brand of Christianity.
Chesterton called 'Mere Christianity', the core doctrinal beliefs that all lewises biography pdf share". Soon after Lewis entered Oxford in the summer term, he joined the Officers' Training Corps at the university as his "most promising route into the army". On his nineteenth birthday he arrived at the front line in the Somme Valley in France, where he experienced trench warfare for the first time.
He was demobilised in December and soon restarted his studies. After Lewis returned to Oxford University, he received a First in Honour Moderations Greek and Latin literature ina First in Greats Philosophy and Ancient History inand a First in English in In he became a philosophy tutor at University College and, inwas elected a Fellow and Tutor in English Literature at Magdalen Collegewhere he served for 29 years until During his army training, Lewis shared a room with another cadet, Edward Courtnay Francis "Paddy" Moore — Maureen Moore, Paddy's sister, said that the two made a mutual pact  that if either died during the war, the survivor would take care of both of their families.
Paddy was killed in action in and Lewis kept his promise. Paddy had earlier introduced Lewis to his mother, Jane King Moore, and a friendship quickly sprang up between Lewis, who was eighteen when they met, and Jane, who was forty-five.
The lewis biography pdf with Moore was particularly important to Lewis while he was recovering from his wounds in hospital, as his father did not visit him. Lewis lived with and cared for Moore until she was hospitalised in the late s. He routinely introduced her as his mother, referred to her as such in letters, and developed a deeply affectionate lewis biography pdf with her.
Lewis's own mother had died when he was a child, and his father was distant, demanding, and eccentric. Speculation regarding their relationship resurfaced with the publication of A. Wilson 's biography of Lewis. Wilson who never met Lewis attempted to make a case for their having been lovers for a time. Wilson's biography was not the first to address the question of Lewis's relationship with Moore.
George Sayer knew Lewis for 29 years, and he had sought to shed light on the relationship during the period of 14 years prior to Lewis's conversion to Christianity. In his biography Jack: A Life of C.
Lewishe wrote:. Owen Barfield, who knew Jack well in the s, once josh gallahan biography that he thought the likelihood was "fifty-fifty". Although she was twenty-six years older than Jack, she was a handsome woman, and he was certainly infatuated with her. But it seems very odd, if they were lovers, that he would call her "mother". We know, too, that they did not share the same bedroom.
It seems most likely that he was bound to her by the promise he had given to Paddy and that his promise was reinforced by his love for her as his second mother. Later Sayer changed his mind. In the introduction to the edition of his biography of Lewis he wrote:. I have had to alter my opinion of Lewis's relationship with Mrs. In chapter eight of this book I wrote that I was uncertain about whether they were lovers. Now after conversations with Mrs.
Moore's daughter, Maureen, and a consideration of the way in which their bedrooms were arranged at The Kilns, I am quite certain that they were. Lewis spoke well of Mrs. Moore throughout his life, saying to his friend George Sayer, "She was generous and taught me to be generous, too.
InLewis moved into "The Kilns" with his brother Warnie, Mrs. Moore, and her daughter Maureen. The Kilns was a house in the district of Headington Quarry on the outskirts of Oxford, now part of the suburb of Risinghurst.
They all contributed financially to the purchase of the house, which passed to Maureen, who by then was Dame Maureen Dunbarwhen Warren died in Jane Moore suffered from dementia in her later years and was eventually moved into a nursing home, where she died in Lewis visited her every day in this home until her death.
Lewis was raised in a religious family that attended the Church of Ireland. He became an atheist at age 15, though he later described his young self as being paradoxically "angry with God for not existing". Nequaquam nobis divinitus esse paratam Naturam rerum; tanta stat praedita culpa. Had God designed the world, it would not be A world so frail and faulty as we see. Lewis's interest in the works of George MacDonald was part of what turned him from atheism.
This can be seen particularly well through this passage in Lewis's The Great Divorcechapter nine, when the semi-autobiographical character meets MacDonald in Heaven:. I tried, trembling, to tell this man all that his writings had done for me.
I tried to tell how a certain frosty afternoon at Leatherhead Station when I had first bought a copy of Phantastes being then about sixteen years old had been to me what the first sight of Beatrice had been to Dante: Here begins the new life.
I started to confess how long that Life had delayed in the region of imagination merely: He eventually returned to Christianity, having been influenced by arguments with his Oxford colleague and Christian friend J.
Tolkienwhom he seems to have met for the first time on 11 Mayand the book The Everlasting Man by G. Lewis vigorously resisted conversion, noting that he was brought into Christianity like a prodigal, "kicking, struggling, resentful, and darting his eyes in every direction for a chance to escape".
You must picture me alone in that room in Magdalen [College, Oxford], night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me.
In the Trinity Term of I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: After his lewis biography pdf to theism inLewis converted to Christianity infollowing a long discussion and late-night walk with his close friends Tolkien and Hugo Dyson. He records making a specific commitment to Christian belief while on his way to the zoo with his brother. Lewis was a committed Anglican who upheld a largely orthodox Anglican theology, though in his apologetic writings, he made an effort to avoid espousing any one denomination.
In his later writings, some believe that he proposed ideas such as purification of venial sins after death in purgatory The Great Divorce and Letters to Malcolm and mortal sin The Screwtape Letterswhich are generally considered to be Roman Catholic teachings, although they are also widely held in Anglicanism particularly in high church Anglo-Catholic circles.
Regardless, Lewis considered himself an entirely orthodox Anglican to the end of his life, reflecting that he had initially attended church only to receive communion and had been repelled by the lewises biography pdf and the poor quality of the sermons.
He later came to consider himself honoured by worshipping with men of faith who came in shabby clothes and work boots and who sang all the verses to all the hymns. After the outbreak of the war inthe Lewises took child evacuees from London and other cities into The Kilns. Lewis was only 40 when the war started, and he tried to re-enter military service, offering to instruct cadets; but his offer was not accepted.
He rejected the lewis biography pdf office's suggestion of writing columns for the Ministry of Information in the press, as he did not want to "write lies"  to deceive the enemy. He later served in the local Home Guard in Oxford. From toLewis spoke on religious programmes broadcast by the BBC from London while the city was under periodic air raids. For example, Air Chief Marshal Sir Donald Hardman wrote:.
The broadcasts were anthologised in Mere Christianity. Fromhe was occupied at his summer holiday weekends visiting R.
It was also during the lewis biography pdf wartime period that Lewis was invited to become first President of the Oxford Socratic Club in January a position that he enthusiastically held until he resigned on appointment to Cambridge University in Lewis was named on the last list of honours by George VI in December as a Member of the Order of the British Empire MBE but declined so as to avoid association with any political issues.
InLewis accepted the newly founded chair of Mediaeval and Renaissance Literature at Magdalene College, Cambridgewhere he finished his career. He maintained a strong attachment to the city of Oxfordkeeping a home there and returning on weekends until his death in She was my daughter and my mother, my pupil and my teacher, my subject and my sovereign; and always, holding all these in solution, my trusty comrade, friend, shipmate, fellow-soldier.
My mistress; but at the same time all that any man friend and I have good ones has ever been to me. In later life, Lewis corresponded with Joy Davidman Greshaman American writer of Jewish background, a former Communist, and a convert from atheism to Christianity.
Greshamand came to England with her two sons, David and Douglas. Joy was the only woman whom he had met Since she was divorced, this was not straightforward in the Church of England at the time, but a friend, the Rev. Peter Bide, performed the ceremony at her bed in the Churchill Hospital on 21 March Gresham's cancer soon went into remission, and the couple lived together as a family with Warren Lewis untilwhen recurrence of the cancer caused her death on 13 July.
Earlier that year, the couple took a brief holiday in Greece and the Aegean ; Lewis was fond of walking but not of travel, and this marked his only crossing of the English Channel after Lewis's book A Grief Observed describes his experience of bereavement in such a raw and personal fashion that he originally released it under the pseudonym N.
Clerk to keep readers from associating the book with him. Ironically, many friends recommended the book to Lewis as a method for dealing with his own grief. After Lewis's death, his authorship was made public by Faber's, with the permission of the executors.
Lewis continued to raise Gresham's two sons after her death. Douglas Gresham is a Christian like Lewis and his mother,  while David Gresham turned to his mother's ancestral faith, becoming Orthodox Jewish in his beliefs.
His mother's writings had featured the Jews in an unsympathetic manner, particularly one " shohet " ritual slaughterer.
David informed Lewis that he was going to become a ritual slaughterer to present this type of Jewish religious functionary to the world in a more favourable light. In a interview, Douglas Gresham acknowledged that he and his brother were not close, but he did say that they are in email contact. In early JuneLewis began suffering from nephritiswhich resulted in blood poisoning. His illness caused him to miss the autumn term at Cambridge, though his health gradually began improving in and he returned that April.
Lewis's health continued to improve, and according to his friend George Sayer, Lewis was fully himself by early On 15 July that year he fell ill and was admitted to lewis biography pdf. The next day at 5: After he was discharged from the hospital, Lewis returned to the Kilns, though he was too ill to lewis biography pdf to work.
As a result, he resigned from his post at Cambridge in August. Lewis's condition continued to decline, and in mid-November he was diagnosed with end-stage renal failure. On 22 November, exactly one week before his 65th birthday, Lewis collapsed in his lewis biography pdf at 5: Media coverage of Lewis's death was almost completely overshadowed by news of the lewis biography pdf of US President John F.
Kennedywhich occurred on the same day approximately 55 minutes following Lewis's collapseas did the death of English writer Aldous Huxleyauthor of Brave New World. A Dialog Somewhere Beyond Death with John F. Lewis began his academic career as an undergraduate student at Oxford Universitywhere he won a triple first, the highest honours in three areas of study. Inhe was awarded the newly founded lewis biography pdf of Mediaeval and Renaissance Literature at Cambridge Universityand was elected a fellow of Magdalene College.
Concerning his appointed academic field, he argued that there was no such thing as severin fayerman biography English Renaissance. Much of his scholarly concentrated on the later Middle Agesespecially its use of allegory. His The Allegory of Love helped reinvigorate the serious study of late medieval narratives such as the Roman de la Rose. Lewis wrote lewis biography pdf prefaces to works of literature and poetry, such as Layamon's Brut.
His book "A Preface to Paradise Lost " is still one of the most valuable criticisms of that work. His last academic workThe Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literatureis a summary of the medieval lewis biography pdf view, a reference to the "discarded image" of the cosmos.
Lewis was a prolific writer, and his circle of literary friends became an informal discussion society known as the " Inklings ", including J. TolkienNevill CoghillLord David CecilCharles WilliamsOwen Barfieldand his brother Warren Lewis. Glyer points to December as the Inklings' beginning date. Curiously, the religious and conservative Betjeman detested Lewis, whereas the anti-establishment Tynan retained a lifelong admiration for him.
Of Tolkien, Lewis writes in Surprised by Joy:. When I began teaching for the English Faculty, I made two other friends, both Christians these queer people seemed now to pop up on every side who were later to give me much help in getting over the last stile.
They were HVV Dyson Friendship with the latter marked the breakdown of two old prejudices. At my first coming into the world I had been implicitly warned never to trust a Papist, and at my first coming into the English Faculty explicitly never to trust a philologist. In addition to his scholarly work, Lewis wrote several popular novels, including the science fiction Space Trilogy for adults and the Narnia fantasies for children. Most deal implicitly with Christian lewises biography pdf such as sin, humanity's fall from graceand redemption.
His first novel after becoming a Christian was The Pilgrim's Regresswhich depicted his experience with Christianity in the style of John Bunyan 's The Pilgrim's Progress. The book was poorly received by critics at the time,  although David Martyn Lloyd-Jonesone of Lewis's contemporaries at Oxford, gave him much-valued encouragement. Asked by Lloyd-Jones when he would write another book, Lewis replied, "When I understand the meaning of lewis biography pdf. The Space Trilogy also called the Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy dealt with what Lewis saw as the dehumanising trends in contemporary science fiction.
The first book, Out of the Silent Planetwas apparently written following a conversation with his friend J. Tolkien about these trends. Lewis agreed to write a "space travel" story and Tolkien a "time travel" one, but Tolkien never completed " The Lost Road ", linking his Middle-earth to the modern world.
Lewis's main character Elwin Ransom is based in part on Tolkien, a fact to which Tolkien alludes in his letters. The second novel, Perelandradepicts a new Garden of Eden on the planet Venus, a new Adam and Eveand a new "serpent figure" to tempt Eve.
The story can be seen as an account of what might have happened if the terrestrial Adam had defeated the serpent and avoided the Fall of Manwith Ransom intervening in the novel to "ransom" the new Adam and Eve from the deceptions of the enemy. The third novel, That Hideous Strengthdevelops the theme of nihilistic science threatening traditional human values, embodied in Arthurian legend. Many ideas in the trilogy, particularly opposition to dehumanization as portrayed in the third book, are presented more formally in The Abolition of Manbased on a series of lectures by Lewis at Durham University in Lewis stayed in Durham, where he says he was overwhelmed by the magnificence of the cathedral.
That Satoko kitahara biography Strength is in fact set in the environs of "Edgestow" university, a small English university like Durham, though Lewis disclaims any other resemblance between the two.
Walter HooperLewis's literary executor, discovered a fragment of another science-fiction novel apparently written by Lewis called The Dark Tower. Ransom appears in the story but it is not clear whether the book was intended as part of the same series of novels. The manuscript was eventually published inthough Lewis scholar Kathryn Lindskoog doubts its authenticity.
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children and is considered a classic of children's literature. Written between and and illustrated by Pauline Baynesthe lewis biography pdf is Lewis's most popular work, having sold over million copies in 41 languages Kelly Guthmann It has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage and cinema. The books contain Christian ideas intended to be easily accessible to lewis biography pdf readers.
In addition to Christian themes, Lewis also borrows characters from Greek and Roman mythologyas well as traditional British and Irish fairy tales. Lewis wrote several works on Heaven and Hell. One of these, The Great Divorceis a short novella in which a few residents of Hell take a bus ride to Heaven, where they are met by people who dwell there. The proposition is that they can stay if they choose, in which lewis biography pdf they can call the place where they had come from " Purgatory ", instead of "Hell", but many find it not to their taste.
The title is a reference to William Blake 's The Marriage of Heaven and Hella concept that Lewis found a "disastrous error".
This work deliberately echoes two other more famous lewis biography pdf with a similar theme: Another short work, The Screwtape Lettersconsists of letters of advice from senior demon Screwtape to his nephew Wormwood on the best ways to tempt a particular human and secure his damnation. Lewis's last novel was Till We Have Faceswhich he thought of as his most mature and masterly work of fiction but which was never a popular success.
It is a retelling of the myth of Cupid and Psyche from the unusual lewis biography pdf of Psyche's sister. It is deeply concerned with religious ideas, but the setting is entirely paganand the lewises biography pdf with specific Christian beliefs are left implicit. Before Lewis's conversion to Christianity, he published two books: Spirits in Bondagea collection of poems, and Dymera single narrative poem. Both were published under the pen name Clive Hamilton. Other narrative poems have since been published posthumously, including LauncelotThe Nameless Isleand The Queen of Drum.
He also wrote The Four Loveswhich rhetorically explains four categories of love: Ina partial draft was discovered of Language and Human Naturewhich Lewis had begun co-writing with J. Tolkien, but which was never completed. Lewis is also regarded by many as one of the lewis biography pdf influential Christian apologists of his time, in addition to his career as an English professor and an author of fiction.
Mere Christianity was voted best book of the twentieth century by Christianity Today in Lewis was very interested in presenting a reasonable for Christianity.
Mere ChristianityThe Problem of Painand Miracles were all concerned, to one degree or another, with refuting popular objections to Christianity, such as the question, "How could a good God allow pain to exist in the world? According to George Sayer, losing a debate with Elizabeth Anscombealso a Christian, led Lewis to re-evaluate his role as an apologist, and his future works concentrated on devotional literature and children's books. Lewis also wrote an autobiography titled Surprised by Joywhich lewises biography pdf special emphasis on his own conversion.
It was written before he met his wife, Joy Gresham; the title of the book came from the first line of a poem by William Wordsworth. His essays and public speeches on Christian belief, many of which were collected in God in the Dock and The Weight of Glory and Other Addressesremain popular today. His most famous works, the Chronicles of Narniacontain many strong Christian messages and are often considered allegory. Lewis, an expert on the subject of allegory, maintained that the books were not allegory, and preferred to call the Christian aspects of them " suppositional ".
As Lewis wrote in a letter to a Mrs. Hook in December If Aslan represented the immaterial Deity in the same way in which Giant Despair [a lewis biography pdf in The Pilgrim's Progress ] represents despair, he would be an allegorical figure. In reality, he is an invention giving an imaginary answer to the question, 'What might Christ become like, if there really were a world like Narnia and He chose to be incarnate and die and rise again in that lewis biography pdf as He actually has done in ours?
In a much-cited passage from Mere ChristianityLewis challenged the view that Jesus was a great moral teacher but not God. He argued that Jesus made several implicit claims to divinity, which would logically exclude that claim:. I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher.
You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God, sanchit sharma biography let us not come with any patronising nonsense about his being a great human teacher.
He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to. Although this argument is sometimes called "Lewis's trilemma", Lewis did not invent it but rather developed and popularized it.
It has also been used by Christian apologist Josh McDowell in his book More Than a Carpenter McDowell It has been widely repeated in Christian apologetic literature, but largely ignored by professional theologians and biblical scholars.
Lewis's Christian apologetics, and this argument in particular, have been criticised. Philosopher John Beversluis described Lewis's arguments as "textually careless and theologically unreliable",  and this particular argument as logically unsound and an example of false dilemma. Lewis used a similar argument in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobewhen the old Professor advises the young heroes that their sister's claims of a magical world must logically be taken as either lies, madness, or truth.
One of the main theses in Lewis's apologia is gale biography in context database there is a common morality known throughout humanity, which he calls " Natural Law ". In the first five chapters of Mere Christianity Lewis discusses the idea that people have a standard of behaviour to which they expect lewis biography pdf to adhere. Lewis claims that lewis biography pdf all over the earth know what this law is and when they break it.
He goes on to claim that there must be someone or something behind such a universal set of principles. These then are the two points that I wanted to make. First, that human beings, all over the earth, have this curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and cannot really get rid of it. Secondly, that they do not in fact behave in that way.
They know the Law of Nature; they break it. These two lewises biography pdf are the foundation of all clear thinking about ourselves and the universe we live in. Lewis also portrays Universal Morality in his works of fiction. In The Chronicles of Narnia he describes Universal Morality as the "deep magic" which everyone knew. In the second chapter of Mere Christianity Lewis recognises that "many people find it difficult to understand what this Law of Human Nature In responding to the second idea Lewis notes that people often complain that one set of moral ideas is better than another, but that this actually argues for there existing some "Real Morality" to which they are comparing other moralities.
Finally he notes that sometimes differences in moral codes are exaggerated by people who confuse differences in beliefs about morality with differences in beliefs about facts:. I have met people who exaggerate the differences, because they have not distinguished between lewises biography pdf of morality and differences of belief about facts.
For example, one man said to me, "Three hundred years ago people in England lewis biography pdf putting witches to death. Was that what you call the Rule of Human Nature or Right Conduct? There is no difference of moral principle here: It may be a great advance in knowledge not to believe in witches: You would not call a man humane for ceasing to set mousetraps if he did so because he believed there lewis biography pdf no mice in the house.
Lewis also had fairly progressive views on the topic of "animal morality", in particular the suffering of animals, as is evidenced by lewis biography pdf of his essays: Lewis continues to attract a wide readership. InThe Times ranked him eleventh on their list of "the 50 greatest British writers since ".
His Christian apologetics are read and quoted by members of many Christian denominations. Flowers were laid by Walter Hoopertrustee and literary advisor to the Lewis Estate. An address was delivered by former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams. I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has risen, not only because I see it but because by it I see everything else. Lewis has been the subject of several biographies, a few of which were written by close friends, such as Roger Lancelyn Green and George Sayer.
Inthe screenplay Shadowlands by William Nicholson dramatised Lewis's life and relationship with Joy Davidman Gresham. It was aired on British television starring Joss Ackland and Claire Bloom. This was also staged as a theatre play starring Nigel Hawthorne inand made into the feature film Shadowlands starring Anthony Hopkins and Debra Winger.
Ina one-hour television movie entitled C. Beyond Narnia provided a general synopsis of Lewis's life, starring Anton Rodgers. Many books have been inspired by Lewis, including A Severe Mercy by his correspondent and friend Sheldon Vanauken.
The Chronicles of Narnia has been particularly influential. Modern children's literature has been more or less influenced by Lewis's series, such as Daniel Handler 's A Series of Unfortunate EventsEoin Colfer 's Artemis FowlPhilip Pullman 's His Dark Materialsand J. Rowling 's Harry Potter Hilliard Pullman is an atheist and so fierce a critic of Lewis's work as to be dubbed "the anti-Lewis".
Lewis a negative influence and has accused Lewis of featuring religious propaganda, misogyny, racism, and emotional sadism  in his books. Authors of adult fantasy literature such as Tim Powers have also testified to lewis biography pdf influenced by Lewis's work. In A Sword between the Sexes? Lewis and the Gender DebatesMary Stewart Van Leeuwen finds mahi vij biography Lewis's work "a hierarchical and essentialist view of class and gender" corresponding to an Edwardian upbringing.
Most of Lewis's posthumous work has been edited by his literary executor Walter Hooper. Kathryn Lindskoogan independent Lewis scholar, argued that Hooper's scholarship is not reliable and that he has made false statements and attributed forged works to Lewis. Lewis's stepson Douglas Gresham denies the forgery claims, saying, "The whole controversy thing was engineered for very personal reasons Her fanciful theories have been pretty thoroughly discredited.
A bronze statue of Lewis's character Digory from The Magician's Nephew stands in Belfast's Holywood Arches in front of the Holywood Road Library.
Lewis Societies exist around the world, including one which was founded in Oxford in to discuss papers on the life and works of Lewis and the other Inklings, and generally appreciate all things Lewisian. Film adaptations have been made of three of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the WardrobePrince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader Lewis is featured as a main character in The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica lewis biography pdf by James A.
He is one of two characters in Mark St. Germain 's play Freud's Last Sessionwhich imagines a meeting between Lewis, aged 40, and Sigmund Freudaged 83, at Freud's house in Hampstead, London, inas the Second World War is about to break out. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lewis Lewis, age The Chronicles of Narnia.
John BeversluisC. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. Eerdmans ISBN Ronald W. BreslandThe Backward Glance: Institute of Irish Studies at Queen's University of Belfast. Devin BrownA Life Observed: A Spiritual Biography of C. Brazos Press ISBN Joe R. OstlingC. An Annotated Checklist of Writings About Him and His Works. Kent State University Press, n.
ISBN James ComoBranches to Heaven: The Geniuses of C. Spence James ComoRemembering C. Lewis at the Breakfast Table. Ignatius Press Sean ConnollyInklings of Heaven: ISBN Michael CorenThe Man Who Created Narnia: The Story of C.
Eerdmans, reprint edition First published in Canada by Lester Publishing Limited. ISBN Christopher Derrick C. Lewis and the Church of Rome: A Study in Proto-Ecumenism. ISBN David C. DowningPlanets in Peril: A Critical Study of C.
University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN X David C. DowningThe Most Reluctant Convert: Lewis's Journey to Faith. DowningInto the Region of Awe: DowningInto the Wardrobe: Lewis and the Narnia Chronicles. ISBN Colin DuriezTolkien and C. The Gift of Friendship. Paulist Press ISBN Colin DuriezBedeviled: Lewis, Tolkien and the Shadow of Evil. The Lives, Augustin hadelich biography and Writings of C.
Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. ISBN Bruce L. EdwardsNot a Tame Lion: The Spiritual World of Narnia. EdwardsFurther Up and Further In: Lewis's The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. ISBN Edwards, Bruce L. Life, Works, and Legacy.
Alastair Fowler"C. Supervisor"Yale Review ; Vol.
Biographical lewis biography pdf, in Proceedings of the British Academy 51— Images of His World. ISBN Glyer, Diana The Company They Keep: Tolkien as Writers in Community.
Kent State University Press. Hooper, Walter; Green, Roger Lancelyn . Douglas GreshamLenten Lands: My Childhood with Joy Davidman and C. ISBN ———Jack's Life: A Memory of C. ISBN William GriffinC. The Authentic Voice formerly C. ISBN Dabney Adams HartThrough the Open Door: A New Look at C. University of Alabama Press.
ISBN Joel D. HeckIrrigating Deserts: ISBN Carolyn KeefeC. ISBN Jon KennedyThe Everything Guide to C. ISBN Jon KennedyC. Lewis Themes and Threads. Amazon Kindle ASIN B00ATSY3AQ Clyde S. KilbyThe Christian World of C. ISBN Don W. KingC.
The Legacy of His Poetic Impulse.
ISBN Kathryn LindskoogLight in the Shadowlands: Protecting the Real C. ISBN Susan LowenbergC. A Reference Guide, — ISBN Thomas L. ISBN David Mills ed The Pilgrim's Guide: Lewis and the Art of Witness. ISBN Joseph PearceC. Lewis and the Catholic Church. HarperCollins, ; then Ignatius Press, ISBN Thomas C. PetersSimply C. A Beginner's Guide to His Life and Works. ISBN Justin PhillipsC. Lewis at the BBC: Messages of Hope in the Darkness of War. ISBN Victor ReppertC.
In Defense of the Argument from Reason. ISBN George SayerJack: Lewis and His Times. ISBN Peter J. SchakelReason and Imagination in C. A Study of "Till We Have Faces". SchakelImagination and the Arts in C. Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds. University of Missouri Press. ISBN X Peter J. Essays on the Fiction of C. ISBN X Stephen SchofieldIn Search of C.
Jose sanchis sinisterra biography X Jeffrey D. ISBN Sanford SchwartzC. Lewis on the Final Frontier: Science and the Supernatural in the Space Trilogy. Wesleyan University Press ISBN X Richard J. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies. Essays in Celebration of C.
ISBN Chad WalshC. Apostle to the Skeptics. Macmillan Chad WalshThe Literary Legacy of C. ISBN Michael WardPlanet Narnia. ISBN George Watson ed. ISBN Michael WhiteC. The Boy Who Chronicled Narnia. ISBN Erik J. WielenbergGod and the Reach of Reason. ISBN Wilson, A. A more lewis biography pdf translation, by William Ellery Leonard,  reads: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Subscription or UK lewis biography pdf library lewis biography pdf required.
Lewis Timeline - C. Retrieved 11 March Encyclopedia of World Biography. Ten Boys Who Used Their Talents. Christian Focus Publications Ltd. Significant Sites in the Land and Life of C.
Lewis, Part 1, Little Lea". Retrieved 7 March The Shape of My Early Life. Retrieved 4 February Lewis on Heaven and Hell. The Magical World of Aleister Crowley. A Beginner's Guide to the Life and Works of C. Protestant Colonialism and Conscience in British Literature" by Christopher Hodgkins, Modern PhilologyVol. The Secret Country of C. Lewis and Mrs Janie Moore, by James O'Fee". Original from the University of Michigan. Archived from the on 6 February Lewis; Walter Hooper, lewises biography pdf.
The Letters of Joy Davidman ' ". Retrieved 8 December A Complete Guide to His Life and Works. Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 9 October Lewis Reader's Encyclopedia Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan,p. Lewis — A Life: Eccentric Genius, Reluctant Prophet. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Retrieved 7 October On the Nature of British Science Fiction.
Retrieved 28 April The Question of God: Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life. Retrieved 10 March Archived from the lewis biography pdf on 2 December Freeing Narnia from the Spell of the Lewis-Anscombe Legend". In Gregory Bassham and Jerry L. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy: The Lion, the Witch, and the Worldview.
La SalleIllinois: Open Court Publishing Company. The Philosophy of Elizabeth Anscombe. Davis, Daniel Kendall and Gerald O'Collins.
The metaphor of God incarnate: Reflections on a Master Apologist After 60 Years". Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 2 August Lewis's theology of animals".
Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 24 February Lewis, writer, scholar, apologist. Retrieved 8 April The Mail on Sunday. Archived from the original on 15 February A Sword between the Sexes? Lewis and the Gender Debates. The Inklings of Oxford: Tolkien, and Their Friends. Clare, David February In Andrew Walker; James Patrick. A Christian for all Christians: Friends of Holy Trinity Church.
Archived from the lewis biography pdf on 22 January Guthmann, Edward 11 December Haven, Cynthia 1 January Hilliard, Juli Cragg 9 December Archived from the lewis biography pdf on 5 August Kelly, Clint Winter The Narnia Author and His Young Readers".
Between Heaven and Hell: A Dialogue Somewhere Beyond Death lewis biography pdf John F. Gathered Round Northern Fires: Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: University of Kentucky Press. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. More Light In The Shadowlands. Lucretius, Titus [Composed 1st century BCE]. Translated by Leonard, William Ellery.
An Interview Series with Douglas Gresham. Martindale, Wayne; Root, Jerry More Than a Carpenter. The Fight of Faith, — The Banner of Truth Trust. History of the Old Inn. Archived from the original on 13 February Pratt, Alf 6 December Lewis at BYU Conference". The Salt Lake Tribune. Tonkin, c.s. lewis biography pdf, Boyd 11 November The literary lion of Narnia".
Archived from the original on 30 April Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist. Freedom from Religion Foundation.
Dodd, Celia 8 May Drennan, Miriam March Archived from the original on 5 February The Taste of the Pineapple: Lewis as Reader, Critic, and Imaginative Writer. A Rhetoric of Reading: Lewis's Defense of Western Literacy. Center for the Study of Christian Values in Literature. Ezard, John 3 June Gopnik, Adam 21 November Archived from the lewis biography pdf on 2 May A Companion and Guide. The letters of C. Lewis to Arthur Greeves — Through Joy and Beyond: A Pictorial Biography of C.
The Life and Imagination of C. De Rerum Natura in Latin. A Theological Journey into Narnia: An Analysis of the Message Beneath the Text. Neven, Tom 17 December Archived from the lewis biography pdf on 21 July Toynbee, Polly 5 December Find more about C. Lewis at Wikipedia's lewis biography pdf projects. This audio file was created from a revision of the " C.
Lewis " article datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Spirits in Bondage Dymer The Pilgrim's Regress The Screwtape Letters The Great Divorce Till We Have Faces Screwtape Proposes a Toast Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer Boxen Out of the Silent Planet Perelandra That Hideous Strength The Dark Tower manuscript The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Horse and His Boy The Magician's Nephew The Last Battle The Allegory of Love The Personal Heresy The Problem of Pain A Preface to Paradise Lost The Abolition of Man Miracles Mere Christianity Surprised by Joy The Four Loves Studies in Words The World's Last Night and Other Essays An Experiment in Criticism A Grief Observed They Asked for a Paper: Papers and Addresses Selections from Layamon's Brut The Discarded Image The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses Of Other Worlds God in the Dock Lewis ' Space Trilogy.
Out of the Silent Planet Perelandra That Hideous Strength The Dark Tower manuscript; Elwin Ransom Professor Weston Richard Devine. The Chronicles of Narnia by C. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Horse and His Boy The Magician's Nephew The Last Battle Film Soundtrack Game. Narnia world Anvard Archenland Aslan's Country Aslan's How Cair Paravel Calormen Charn Lantern Waste Miraz's Castle Narnia country Underland Wood between the Worlds.
ITV TV serial Animated Struan rodger biography film BBC TV serial Season 1 2 3 Film series Cast list Music Accolades List of actors. Battles First Battle of Beruna Second Battle of Beruna Dawn Treader Deplorable Word Hundred-Year Winter Religion Tisroc.
Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: Retrieved from " https: Lewis births deaths 20th-century novelists from Northern Ireland 20th-century English novelists Alumni of University College, Oxford Anglicans from Northern Ireland British Army personnel of World War I British children's writers British fantasy writers British literary critics British philosophers British science fiction writers British spiritual writers Burials in Oxfordshire Carnegie Medal in Literature winners Christian apologists Christian novelists Christian philosophers Converts to Anglicanism from atheism or agnosticism Deaths from renal failure Disease-related deaths in England Fellows of Magdalene College, Cambridge Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford Inklings Irish Anglicans Irish children's writers Irish fantasy writers Irish literary critics Irish people of Welsh descent Irish philosophers Irish poets Irish science fiction writers Irish spiritual writers Lay theologians Literary critics of English Mythopoeic writers People educated at Campbell College People educated at Malvern College People from Northern Ireland of Welsh descent Somerset Light Infantry officers Writers from Belfast Male novelists from Northern Ireland Male writers from Northern Ireland.
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The Chronicles of Narnia Mere Christianity The Allegory of Love The Screwtape Letters The Space Trilogy Till We Have Faces Surprised by Joy: Lewis ' Space Trilogy Books Out of the Silent Planet Perelandra That Hideous Strength The Dark Tower manuscript; The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The Horse and His Boy.